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Pigeon-toed feet is a common orthopedic condition in young children. It is also called in-toeing and occurs when the feet turn inward instead of naturally lining up straight. By definition, a game bird is a bird that is hunted in the wild for sport and/or food. Duck and geese also fit into this definition, although duck and geese are also a lot more available in the supermarket, where grouse, partridge, and snipe are often nowhere to be found. McMurray Hatchery hatches the highest quality day-old baby chicks, ducks, geese, turkeys and other fowl. We carry the widest selection of rare and exotic breeds, and poutry supplies to assist homesteaders, small farmers, hobbyists and backyard flocks. The pigeon-toed stance sends powerful biological signals to both genders. ‘Celebrities are a commodity — they need other women to like them so they go to see their films,’ she says. May 20, 2015 - roosters Black Fowl As Bred By Jerry Lawrence.

Pigeon toe
Other namesMetatarsuhnvarus, metatarsus adductus, in-toe gait, intoeing, false clubfoot
SpecialtyPediatrics, orthopedics

Pigeon toe, also known as in-toeing, is a condition which causes the toes to point inward when walking. It is most common in infants and children under two years of age[1] and, when not the result of simple muscle weakness,[2] normally arises from underlying conditions, such as a twisted shin bone or an excessive anteversion (femoral head is more than 15° from the angle of torsion) resulting in the twisting of the thigh bone when the front part of a person's foot is turned in.


The cause of in-toeing can be differentiated based on the location of the disalignment. The variants are:[3][4]

  • Curved foot (metatarsus adductus)
  • Twisted shin (tibial torsion)
  • Twisted thighbone (femoral anteversion)

Game Rooster Pigeon Toed Forge

Metatarsus adductus[edit]

The most common form of being pigeon toed, when the feet bend inward from the middle part of the foot to the toes.

Tibial torsion[edit]

The tibia or lower leg slightly or severely twists inward when walking or standing.

Femoral anteversion[edit]

The femur or thigh bone turns inward when walking.


A Sgarlato's angle of more than 15° indicates pigeon toe.[5]

Pigeon toe can be diagnosed by physical examination alone.[6] This can classify the deformity into 'flexible', when the foot can be straightened by hand, or otherwise 'nonflexible'.[6] Still, X-rays are often done in the case of nonflexible pigeon toe.[6] On X-ray, the severity of the condition can be measured with a 'metatarsus adductus angle', which is the angle between the directions of the metatarsal bones, as compared to the lesser tarsus (the cuneiforms, the cuboid and the navicular bone).[7] Many variants of this measurement exist, but Sgarlato's angle has been found to at least have favorable correlation with other measurements.[8]Sgarlato's angle is defined as the angle between:[5][9]

  • A line through the longitudinal axis of the second metatarsal bone.
  • The longitudinal axis of the lesser tarsal bones. For this purpose, one line is drawn between the lateral limits of the fourth tarsometatarsal joint and the calcaneocuboid joint, and another line is drawn between the medial limits of the talonavicular joint and the 1st tarsometatarsal joint. The transverse axis is defined as going through the middle of those lines, and hence the longitudinal axis is perpendicular to this axis.

This angle is normally up to 15°, and an increased angle indicates pigeon toe.[5] Yet, it becomes more difficult to infer the locations of the joints in younger children due to incomplete ossification of the bones, especially when younger than 3–4 years.


In those less than eight years old with simple in-toeing and minor symptoms, no specific treatment is needed.[10]

See also[edit]

Best shoes for pigeon toed kids


  1. ^'Pigeon toe (in-toeing)'. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  2. ^Glenn Copeland; Stan Solomon; Mark Myerson (2005). The Good Foot Book. New York: Hunter House. pp. 96–97. ISBN0-89793-448-2.
  3. ^'Intoeing'. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved 6 July 2013. Reviewed by members of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America
  4. ^Clifford R. Wheeless III (ed.). 'Internal Tibial Torsion'. Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  5. ^ abcChen L, Wang C, Wang X, Huang J, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Ma X (2014). 'A reappraisal of the relationship between metatarsus adductus and hallux valgus'. Chin. Med. J. 127 (11): 2067–72. PMID24890154.
  6. ^ abc'Metatarsus Adductus'. Lucile Packard Children's Hospital. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  7. ^Dawoodi, Aryan I.S.; Perera, Anthony (2012). 'Reliability of metatarsus adductus angle and correlation with hallux valgus'. Foot and Ankle Surgery. 18 (3): 180–186. doi:10.1016/j.fas.2011.10.001. ISSN1268-7731.
  8. ^Michael Crawford, Donald Green. 'METATARSUS ADDUCTUS: Radiographic and Pathomechanical Analysis'(PDF). The Podiatry Institute.
  9. ^Loh, Bryan; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Yew, Andy Khye Soon; Chong, Hwei Chi; Yeo, Malcolm Guan Hin; Tao, Peng; Koo, Kevin; Rikhraj Singh, Inderjeet (2015). 'Prevalence of Metatarsus Adductus in Symptomatic Hallux Valgus and Its Influence on Functional Outcome'. Foot & Ankle International. 36 (11): 1316–1321. doi:10.1177/1071100715595618. ISSN1071-1007.
  10. ^'Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question'(PDF). American Academy of Pediatrics-Section on Orthopaedics and the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America. Retrieved 24 February 2018.

External links[edit]

  • ICD-10: M20.5, Q66.2
  • ICD-9-CM: 754.53
  • MeSH: D000070592
External resources
  • Metatarsus Adductus on POSNA—The Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America

Pigeon Toed Urban Dictionary

Retrieved from ''

Tibial Torsion

GameRooster.Com Disease Diagnostics Aid


( Health Care )

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Piperazine will ONLY kill round worms.
Levamisole is for gape , Cappillary and some round worms.
Ivmec will remove all but tapeworms.
Wormal will kill tape, cecal and round worms.
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TAPEWORMS is a flat worm with lines running across it, that can break off and passed through the droppings. being picked up by other birds. or eating by insects such as beetles, ants, grasshoppers, houseflies, also earthworms, slugs, snails ....
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CECAL WORMS birds get these worms by eating infected droppings. the chicken has two bags that grow off each side of the intestine track called Cecal the worms live near the tip of the Cecal. they are a slender white worm about 1/2 inch long.
EYE WORMS [ mansoni eye worms] small white worms that grown in the corner of the eye causing swelling. birds get worms from eating cockroaches. use 3 drops of vet-rx directly in eye for 3 days. or put 3 drops of ivomec directly into eye for 3 days. inject birds with 1/2 cc of ivomec just under the skin in back of the neck or breast.
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MITES are gray in color until the have sucked the blood then they are red in color. they are night feeders. during the day they will hide in cracks of the root or t-pees. that is why it is best to look for them at night on birds. Treatment is same as for lice.
FEATHER MITES live on the base of the feather and/or burrow into the quill. They can also burrow in the skin. 1 tablespoon of Permaban to 1 gallon of water dip birds.
LEG MITES live in the scales of the leg and feet. and toe. Scales will become raised and thick note: once scales have been raised they will never go back into place. treatment spray scarlet oil on legs and feet ever day for 3 weeks.