Game Pigeon Won't Load

Many times you can troubleshoot the experience yourself by performing the following maintenance. One or more of these steps may resolve the issue if a game will not load or play as expected. Close the game, log out of Facebook and clear your browser's cache.

Before it can load a game,higan requires that all the game’s databe stored correctly inthe Game Library.For regular gamesthis is simple,but some games require special treatment,especially those that make use ofunusual hardware.

Regular games¶

higan’s importing tool, icarus, can import gamesin the most commonly-used formatsfor each supported console,and also those same formats inside .zip files(as long as the .zip file contains only one game).More advanced compression formatslike RAR or 7-zip are not supported.

To import a game,open the Library menu,choose “Load ROM File …”to open a filesystem browser,choose the ROM file of the game you want to play,and it will be imported into the library and start playing.

Note:If you want to import many games,run icarus directly,or choose “Import ROM Files …”from the Library menu(which just runs icarus anyway).See the icarus documentation for details.

To play a game for a particular console from your library,open the Library menu,pick the console manufacturer sub-menu(Nintendo for the Super Famicom,Bandai for the WonderSwan,etc.)then choose the appropriate console menu item.A filesystem browser will appearlisting all the games in the libraryfor that particular console.Select the game you want to playand click the Open button,or just double-click the game,and it will begin playing.

Note:Sometimesthe NTSC and PAL variants of a particular consolebehave differently,or the Japanese and American variants.When choosing a game from the Game Library,a drop-down list in the bottom-right of the filesystem browserallows you to choose which regional variantof the console higan should emulate.For most consoles,higan can reliably guess which variant to use,and the list defaults to “Auto”.

Games with co-processor firmware¶

Many games included extra chips inside the game cartridge,to provide enhanced capabilities of one kind or another.Sometimes,those extra chips were separate CPUsrunning their own separate firmware,and for those caseshigan requires a copy of the co-processor firmwareas well as the actual game data.Unfortunately,like games themselves,co-processor firmware cannot legally be distributed,so you’ll need to obtaincopies of the relevant firmware datayourself.

To import a game that requires co-processor firmware,you must first combine the game data and the firmware into a single file.For example,let’s say you want to import Super Bases Loaded 2 for the Super Famicom,which is stored in the file sbl2.sfcand requires firmware for the DSP1 co-processorstored in dsp1.program.rom and Windows,you can combine them from the command-line like this:

On Linux,the equivalent command-line syntax is:

(note the use of >> to append rather than > to overwrite)

Note:For co-processor chips with multiple firmware files,you must put the “program” file before the “data” file.

Wikipedia lists which Super Famicom games use which co-processors,although not all co-processors require separate firmware.Once you’ve figured out which co-processor(if any)is used by the game you want to import,here’s the firmware files you’ll need:

Co-processorFilenameSize (bytes)SHA256
See Note 1
See Note 2

Note 1:The DSP1 and DSP1A are physically different,but the firmware inside is identical.

Note 2:The DSP1B is very similar to the DSP1A,but fixes some bugs.Note that icarus’ heuristics cannot distinguish betweena game that uses the DSP1and one that uses the DSP1B,so if it cannot find your game in its manifest database,it will assume it uses DSP1B.Many games work just as well with either variant,but Pilotwings requires the DSP1 firmware,while Ballz 3D requires the DSP1B.

If you try to import a gameusing the “Import ROM Files …” optionin the Library menu(or using icarus directly)but it does not include the correct firmware data,a window will appear saying“Import completed, but with 1 errors. View log?”(or however many games were lacking the correct firmware).If you press “Yes”,a new window will appear listing the games that couldn’t be imported,and what problem was detected:

[sbl2.sfc] ROM image is missing DSP1 firmware data

If you try to import a gameusing the “Load ROM File …” optionin the Library menubut it does not include the correct firmware data,nothing will happen,and higan will just sit therewith “No cartridge loaded” inthe status bar.

Once a game with co-processor firmware is imported,you can play it just like any regular game.

Satellaview games¶

The Satellaviewwas a satellite modem peripheralreleased for the Super Famicom in Japan.As well as the actual modem(designed to sit underneath the Super Famicom),it also included a cartridgewith software to control the modem,browse online services,and download games and data.This control cartridge was calledBS-X Sore wa Namae o Nusumareta Machi no Monogatari,which in English isBS-X The Story of The Town Whose Name Was Stolen.

The control cartridge had a slot that acceptedre-writable “memory paks”,so that people could store the games and data they downloaded.A small number of games that did not use the Satellaview modemalso had a memory pak slot,so the game’s publishers couldpublish extra content for the gamevia the Satellaview serviceafter the game’s release.For the benefit of people who didn’t own a Satellaviewsome read-only memory pakswere sold in retail storescontaining extra content for specific games.

Importing a game that has a slot for a memory pakis just like importing a regular game.

Importing a memory pak is like importing a regular game,but the name of the memory pak file must end in .bs(if it’s in a .zip file,that’s OK,but the name inside the .zip filemust end in .bs)in order for it to be successfully imported.Sometimes memory pak filenames end in .sfc,which will make higan try to import them asregular Super Famicom gamesand fail.Rename the file and it should work beautifully.

Playing a game that has a slot for a memory pakis just like playing a regular game,but after you have selected which game you want to playhigan will open anotherfilesystem browserto let you pick which previously-imported memory pakyou want to insert into the game.If you press “Cancel” at this point,the game will load without any cartridge in its memory pak slot.

If you load the control cartridge into higan,make sure the emulated Satellaviewis connected to the emulated Super Famicom’s expansion portby opening the “Super Famicom” menu,selecting the “Expansion Port” sub-menu,and choosing “Satellaview”.If the expansion port was previouslyconfigured with a different option,power-cycle the Super Famicom(also in the “Super Famicom” menu)to make sure the control cartridge will find the Satellaviewwhen it starts up.Note that higan’s Satellaview emulation is not very accurate,so the control cartridge may not work as it should.

Playing a memory pak on its own doesn’t make much sense,it’s not a standalone cartridge.Play a game with a memory pak slot,and choose which memory pak you want when higan asks for it.

For more information about the Satellaview service,a translation patch for the control cartridgeand emulators that do a better job of Satellaview emulation,see the BS-X Project.

Sufami Turbo games¶

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The Sufami Turbowas a special cartridge releasedfor the Super Famicom in Japan.The Sufami Turbo on its own does nothing,but it has two slots in the topthat accept Sufami Turbo mini-cartridges.The game in slot A is the one that actually plays,but some games can make use of additional datafrom a game in slot B.

Importing the Sufami Turbo cartridgeis just like importing a regular game.

Importing a mini-cartridge is like importing a regular game,but the name of the mini-cartridge file must end in .st(if it’s in a .zip file,that’s OK,but the name inside the .zip filemust end in .st)in order for it to be successfully imported.Sometimes mini-cartridge filenames end in .sfc,which will make higan try to import them asregular Super Famicom games,and fail miserably.Rename the file and it should work beautifully.

To play a Sufami Turbo game,load the Sufami Turbo cartridge like any other game.higan will open anotherfilesystem browserto let you pick which previously-imported mini-cartridgeyou want to insert into slot A.If you press “Cancel” at this point,the Sufami Turbo cartridge will boot without anything in slot A,which just displays an image telling youto turn off your Super Famicom,insert a game into slot A,and try again.If you chose a cartridge for slot A,higan will open yet anotherfilesystem browserto let you choose a mini-cartridge for slot B.If you press “Cancel” at this point,the Sufami Turbo cartridge will boot without anything in slot B.

Super Game Boy games¶

The Super Game Boy was a special cartridgereleased for the Super Famicom(and all its regional variants around the world)that allowed Game Boy games to be playedvia the Super Famicom’s controllers and video output.The Super Game Boy does not emulate the Game Boy hardware,it physically includes all the Game Boy componentsso compatibility with Game Boy games is high.However, the Super Game Boy drives the Game Boy hardwarefrom the Super Famicom’s timing signals, which meansgames play 2.4% faster than on a real Game Boy.

The Super Game Boy 2 was a Japan-only releasethat fixed the timing problem of the original Super Game Boy,and included a different set of default borders.higan supports the Super Game Boy 2 base cartridge,so you can use the extra borders,but does not yet emulate the timing changeso games still play slightly too fast.

Because the Super Game Boy cartridge includesthe original Game Boy hardware,it needs a boot ROM:

CartridgeFilenameSize (bytes)SHA256

To import the SGB base cartridge,you must first combine the base cartridge dataand the boot ROM into a single file,just likegames with co-processor firmware.Then you may import it like a regular game.

To play a Game Boy game in Super Game Boy mode,load the Super Game Boy cartridge like any other game.higan will open anotherfilesystem browserto let you pick which previously-imported Game Boy gameyou want to insert into the Super Game Boy.If you press “Cancel” at this point,higan will crash, so don’t do that.

Note:Only games for the original, black-and-white Game Boycan be used with the Super Game Boy.Some games designed for the Game Boy Colorwere backward compatible with the original Game Boyand hence the Super Game Boy;see Playing Game Boy Color games in Game Boy modefor details.

MSU-1 games¶

The MSU-1 is a fictional expansion chipinvented by higan’s author byuu,designed to allow the Super Famicomto stream data and audio.Although the MSU-1 is not specificto any particular storage medium,it gives the Super Famicom similar capabilitiesto CD-based add-onslike the Mega Drive’s Mega CDand the PC Engine’s CD-ROM²,such as CD-quality music and full-motion video.

Although the MSU-1 was invented for higan,it is now supported by other Super Famicom emulators too.The SD2SNES programmable cartridgeeven allows you to play MSU-1 games on a real console.There are a number of homebrew gamesthat make use of the MSU-1,and also mods for commercial Super Famicom gamesthat add higher-quality music and sometimes video.

One thing to be aware ofwhen importing an MSU-1 gameis that early firmware versions of the SD2SNEShad a bug that caused MSU-1 music to play too quietly.Skipping over the full details,the short version is this:

  • If offered the choice between “boosted” or non-boosted audio, you want the non-boosted version.
  • If an MSU-1 mod for a commercial game offers “emulator” and “hardware” versions of the patch file, it means the audio tracks are already boosted.
  • Some thirdparties have created replacement, non-boosted audio tracks for the most popular MSU-1 mods. If the mod you want to play has a replacement pack, use it with the “hardware” version of the patch.
  • Even without access to non-boosted audio tracks, it may be that the existing audio is only slightly boosted, so try the “hardware” version first, for best quality.
  • If the audio tracks are heavily boosted, the “hardware” patch may sound terrible, distorting and clipping, in which case try the “emulator” patch.

To import an MSU-1 game:

  1. If you have a single, large file with the .msu1 extension, that is a pack for use with Mercurial Magic, which can automatically set up a game folder in the correct format. Go read Mercurial Magic’s documentation instead of these instructions.
  2. Otherwise, import the Super Famicom ROM with icarus, like a regular game.
    • If this is a homebrew game with MSU-1 support, there will probably be an ordinary ROM whose name ends in .sfc, which is the file you want to import.
    • If this is a commercial game modded for MSU-1 support, there will probably be a patch file whose name ends in .ips or .bps. Get a copy of the correct version of the commercial game, apply the patch with a tool like Flips, then import the patched file.
    • If there’s “hardware” and “emulator” versions of the patch, see “One thing to be aware of…” above.
  3. Find the game folder in the game library that icarus created when it imported the game.
  4. Copy the MSU-1 data file into the game folder.
    • This should be named msu1.rom
    • If there’s no file by that name, look for a file with a .msu extension and rename it to msu1.rom.
    • If there’s no file ending in .msu either, create an empty file named msu1.rom.
  5. Copy the audio tracks into the game folder.
    • If you have to choose between two sets of audio files, see “One thing to be aware of…” above.
    • These should be named track-1.pcm, track-2.pcm, … track-9.pcm, track-10.pcm, etc.
    • If there’s no files with those names, there should be other numbered .pcm files that you can rename to match what higan expects.
    • If the .pcm files have no numbers in the filenames, there maybe a .bml or .xml file that lists which number goes with which file.
    • If there’s no .pcm files at all, that’s OK, this game probably just doesn’t use the audio-playback feature.

My Game Pigeon Won't Load

Once the game folder is set up,playing an MSU-1 game is just likea regular game.

Patched games¶

The console emulation communityhas a long and vibrant history of game modding,or ROM hacking,including fan-translations,new levels for existing games,and more.Since distributing the modified versions of existing gameswould be copyright infringement,the changes are typically distributed as “patches”,a file containing a list of modifications to make,that can be automatically applied by a “patcher” toollike Flips.

higan does not support soft-patching,so if you want to play a patched game in higan,you will need to use a patcher to apply it yourself,creating a new, patched copy of the game.

Then you can import and play the patched game just likea regular game.

Game Boy Advance games¶

Before you can play Game Boy Advance games,you must provide a copy of the Game Boy Advance BIOS.Unlike game-specific firmware,the GBA BIOS was part of the console,not the cartridge,so it must be installedinto higan.

Once the GBA BIOS is installed,GBA games can be imported and played just likeany other games.

Note that some GBA gameshave trouble within-game saves.

PowerFest ‘94¶

PowerFest ‘94was a video game competitionorganised by Nintendo,in which contestants had six minutesto complete a challenge based on three Super Famicom games.The PowerFest ‘94 cartridgewas custom-built for the competition,and included the three base gamesas well as software to run each game,switch between them after a specific time,extract a score,and display the combined total at the end.

icarus cannot automatically importdumps of the PowerFest ‘94 ROMs,but if you have the files,you can import them manually.

You will need the following files:

PartFilenameSize (bytes)SHA256
Super Mario Bros. - The Lost Levelsslot-1.rom5242887fd86113c5f95f794d65807bb75ab91c93c914670c27fc813ffa2ca20a48705e
Super Mario Kartslot-2.rom52428819eb77affbf8dd068f5d79a3cf80a2084fd73237cd1ae4e47192b4422449e64a
Ken Griffey Jr. Presents Major League Baseballslot-3.rom1048576d47bc9f9a6289c4f2e7f6bf74095f6ed36b1043a761e3e729ac9af2fc39ae062

You will also needthe usual dsp1.program.rom and firmware files.

Note: the versions ofSuper Mario Kartand Ken Griffey Jr…in PowerFest ‘94are not the same as the stand-alone versions of those games.

To “import” PowerFest ‘94,collect all the files mentioned above, then:

  1. Inside the game library, create the Super Famicom folder (if it does not already exist).
  2. Inside the Super Famicom folder, create a PowerFest '94.sfc folder (the .sfc extension is important, but you can choose a different base name if you want).
  3. Copy the various ROM files into the PowerFest '94.sfc folder.

To play PowerFest ‘94,open the Library menu,pick the Nintendo sub-menu,then choose the Super Famicom sub-menu itemto open a filesystem browser listingall the Super Famicom games in the library.Select PowerFest ‘94 from the listand click the Open button,or just double-click the game,and it will begin playing.

Clay pigeon shooting at a professional level – 2000 Summer Olympics

Clay pigeon shooting, also known as clay target shooting, is a shooting sport involving shooting a firearm at special flying targets known as clay pigeons, or clay targets.

The terminology commonly used by clay shooters often relates to times past, when live-pigeon competitions were held. Although such competitions were made illegal in the United Kingdom in 1921, a target may still be called a 'bird', a hit may be referred to as a 'kill', and a missed target as a 'bird away'; the machine which projects the targets is still known as a 'trap'.


Clay targets began to be used in place of live pigeons around 1875. Asphalt targets were later developed, but the name 'clay targets' stuck. In 1893, the Inanimate Bird Shooting Association was formed in England. It was renamed to the Clay Bird Shooting Association in 1903.[1] It held annual clay-pigeon-shooting contests[1] and lasted until the outbreak of World War I.[2] In 1921, the British parliament passed a bill without opposition making it illegal to shoot birds from traps.[3]


Clay pigeon shooting has at least 20 different forms of regulated competition called disciplines, although most can be grouped under the main headings of trap, skeet, and sporting.

Sporting clays[edit]

The English Sporting discipline has the sport's biggest following. While the other disciplines only use standard targets, in Sporting almost anything goes. Targets are thrown in a great variety of trajectories, angles, speeds, elevations and distances and the discipline was originally devised to simulate live quarry shooting, hence some of the names commonly used on sporting stands: springing teal, driven pheasant, bolting rabbit, crossing pigeon, dropping duck, etc. Disciplines in this group include English sporting, international (FITASC) sporting, super sporting sportrap, and Compak sporting.

This discipline can have an infinite variety of 'stands'. English sporting is the most popular form of clay shooting in the UK, and a course or competition will feature a given number of stands each of which has a predetermined number of targets, all traveling along the same path and speed, either as singles or doubles.

Each stand will feature a different type of target; e.g., crosser, driven, quartering, etc. International (FITASC) sporting gives a much greater variety of targets in terms of trajectory and speed, and is shot by squads of six competitors in rounds of 25 targets at a time. Super Sporting is a hybrid of the two preceding varieties. There are also other formats such as Compak sporting and sportrap in which five cages are surrounded by a number of traps, and shooters fire a specific combinations or singles from each stand according to a program displayed in front of the cage.

Maze clays shooting[edit]

This is a new shotgun game that offers sporting clays and FITASC target presentations on a skeet/trap or open field. This is possible by using a movable support system that carries the release buttons (wired or wireless setup) from 6 to 9 traps and the dual safety screen in any place on the field. As a result, the shooter can shoot in safe conditions upon target presentations in varying range (10 to 60 yards) and varying angles (sharp to wide).

Trap shooting[edit]

Targets are thrown either as singles or doubles from one or more traps situated some 15 m in front of the shooter, and are generally going away from the firing point at varying speeds, angles and elevations. The most common disciplines in this group are:

  • Down-The-Line (DTL) Single Barrel
  • Double Rise
  • Automatic Ball Trap (ABT)
  • Olympic Trap
  • Double Trap
  • Universal Trench
  • Helice (or ZZ)


Also known as DTL, this is a popular trap shooting discipline. Targets are thrown to a distance of 45 to 50 metres at a fixed height of approximately 2.75 m and with a horizontal spread of up to 22 degrees either side of the centre line. Each competitor shoots at a single target in turn, but without moving from the stand until all have shot five targets. Then they all move one place to the right, and continue to do so until they have all completed a standard round of 25 birds. Scoring of each target is 3 points for a first barrel kill, 2 points for a second barrel kill and 0 for a miss (maximum 75 points per round). Variations of this discipline are single barrel, double rise, and handicap-by-distance.

Olympic trap[edit]

As its name indicates, this is one of the disciplines which form part of the shooting programme at the Olympic Games. A trench in front of the shooting stands conceals 15 traps arranged in five groups of three. Shooters take turns to shoot at a target each, before moving in a clockwise direction to the next stand in the line. Targets for each shooter are thrown immediately upon his call and are selected by a shooting scheme (program) that ensures all competitors receive exactly the same target selection, but in an unpredictable randomised order to the extent that there will be one straight, two left and two right targets for each stand from any one of the three traps directly in front of him/her; guessing which one is next is impossible unless the shooter is on his/her last five targets.

Olympic trap targets are set to travel 76 metres (+/-1m) at the top of trench level marker peg, unless the terrain is dead flat, at varying elevations and with a maximum horizontal angle of 45 degrees either side of the centre line (being where the target exits the trench). Scoring is on the basis of one point per target killed, regardless of whether this is achieved with the first or with the second barrel unless it is a final where the top six scorers shoot off as a single barrel event, regardless of local club grades if any.

A simpler and cheaper to install variation of this discipline is known as automatic ball trap (ABT) where only one trap is used and target variation is obtained by the continuous oscillation of the trap in both horizontal and vertical directions in order to give the same spread of targets as in Olympic trap. Similarly, the targets are also thrown to a maximum of 76 metres.

Also known as Bunker Trap, and International Trap

Universal trench[edit]

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A variation on the theme of trap shooting, sometimes known as five trap. Five traps are installed in a trench in front of the shooting stands, all set at different angles, elevations and speeds, and upon the call of 'Pull!' by the shooter any one of the five machines, selected at random, will be released.

Horizontal angles can vary from 0 degrees to 45 degrees either side of the centre line and target distance is between 60 and 70 metres. Elevations can vary, as in other trap disciplines (except DTL), between 1.5 and 3.5 metres above ground level.

There are 10 different schemes available.

Skeet shooting[edit]

Double Olympic gold medalist Vincent Hancock of the United States Army Marksmanship Unit taking part in a skeet shooting event

Skeet is a word of Scandinavian origin, though the discipline originated in America. Targets are thrown in singles and doubles from 2 trap houses situated some 40 metres apart, at opposite ends of a semicircular arc on which there are seven shooting positions. The targets are thrown at set trajectories and speeds. The main disciplines in this group are English skeet, Olympic skeet and American (NSSA) skeet.

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In NSSA discipline, targets are released in a combination of singles and doubles, adding up to a total of 25 targets per round, from the High and Low trap houses on a fixed trajectory and speed. Variety is achieved by shooting round the seven stations on the semicircle, followed by an eighth station, located between stations one and seven. Scoring is on the basis of 1 point per target killed, up to a maximum of 25.

In English skeet (by far the most popular of the skeet disciplines), the gun position is optional (i.e., pre-mounted or out-of-shoulder when the target is called) and the targets are released immediately upon the shooter's call.

In Olympic skeet, the targets travel at a considerably faster speed, the release of the target can be delayed up to 3 seconds after calling and the gun-down position is compulsory. There is also an eighth shooting station, midway between the two houses.

NSSA and English version of Skeet have the concept of option targets, where the shooter has to repeat the first missed target. In the situation where the first 24 targets are all hit, the last target is considered the option. Here is a representation of Skeet sequences for all variations.

Electrocibles or helice shooting[edit]

Originating in Belgium during the 1960s, Electrocibles is similar to trap shooting, but the clays are equipped with a helice that will give the clay an erratic and unpredictable flight. The helice is composed of two winged plastic propellers with a white clay in the centre.[4] Now the sport is named helice shooting.[5]

Plastic propellers holding a detachable centre piece are rotated at high speed and released randomly from one of five traps. They fly out in an unpredictable way; so-said buzzing through the air. It is designed specifically to simulate as closely as possible the old sport of live pigeon shooting. Its original name of ZZ comes from the inventor who made them out of zinc, and had previously shot a specific breed of pigeon called a zurito; hence the term the zinc zurito. World and European Championships are held every year organized by FITASC.[6]


The targets used for the sport are usually in the shape of an inverted saucer, made from a mixture of pitch and pulverized limestone rock designed to withstand being thrown from traps at very high speeds, but at the same time being easily broken when hit by just a very few lead or steel pellets from a shotgun.

The targets are usually fluorescent orange or black, but other colours such as white, or yellow are frequently used in order that they can be clearly seen against varying backgrounds and/or light conditions.

Targets are made to very exacting specifications with regard to their weight and dimensions and must conform to set international standards.

There are several types of targets that are used for the various disciplines, with a standard 108 mm size being the most common used in American Trap, Skeet, and Sporting Clays while International disciplines of these same games use a slightly larger 110 mm diameter size. Only the standard 108/110 mm target is used in all of the trap and skeet disciplines. Sporting shoots feature the full range of targets (except ZZ) to provide the variety that is a hallmark of the discipline.


All three sports use a shotgun, and in the sporting disciplines are sub-classified by the type of game the clay target represents (pigeon, rabbit, etc.). The two primary methods of projecting clay targets are airborne and ground (rolling).

Naturally, the simplest method of throwing a clay target is by hand, either into the air or along the ground. This method is the simplest, and many 'trick shot' shooters throw their own targets (some able to throw as many as ten birds up and hit each individually before any land). However, a multitude of devices have been developed to throw the birds more easily and with more consistency. A plastic sling-like device is the simplest, though modern shooting ranges will usually have machines that throw the clay targets in consistent arcs at the push of a button.

The most commonly used target of all, must weigh 105 g and be of 110 mm overall diameter and 25–26 mm in height for International competitions and for American competitions they must weigh approximately 100 g (3.5 oz) and be of 108 mm (4.3 in) overall diameter and 28.0–29.0 mm (1.10–1.14 in) in height.
Same saucer shape as the standard but with a diameter of only 90 mm; these targets are faster than the standard types.
This target is sometimes likened to a flying bumblebee at only 60 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height.
A very thin target measuring about 108–110 mm in diameter, it flies very fast and falls off very suddenly simulating a duck landing. They are generally more expensive than other targets.
A thicker, but standard 108–110 mm diameter flat target in the shape of a wheel designed to run along the ground.
This is a plastic, standard sized target attached to the center of a two-blade propeller of different color designed to zigzag in flight in a totally unpredictable manner.


Clay pigeons in an automatic thrower

Traps are purpose-made, spring-loaded, flywheel or rotational devices especially designed to launch the different types of targets in singles or pairs at distances of up to 100 metres.

These machines vary from the very simple hand-cocked, hand-loaded and hand-released types to the highly sophisticated fully automatic variety, which can hold up to 600 targets in their own magazine and are electrically or pneumatically operated. Target release is by remote control, either by pressing a button or by an acoustic system activated by the shooter's voice.

Target speeds and trajectories can be easily modified and varied to suit the discipline or type of shooting required.


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Clay pigeon shooting is performed with a shotgun. The type of shotgun used is often a matter of taste and affected by local laws as well as the governing body of the sport in competitive cases.

All types of shotguns are suitable for clay pigeon shooting, however the ability to fire multiple shots in quick succession is generally considered important. Some skilled shooters will use a single shot firearm in order to add to the challenge. Traditionally Over and Under and Side by Side shotguns have been popular, however semi-automatic and to a lesser extent pump-action have been making gains, particularly as the cost of reliable, accurate semi-automatics has come down over the last decade.

Over And Under
(sometimes shortened to OAU or O/U) As its name indicates this gun has two barrels aligned horizontally and stacked vertically. There is usually one trigger however some models have two. Within this type there are three sub-groups of specification: trap, skeet, and sporting. Trap guns are generally heavier and longer barreled (normally 30 or 32 in or 0.76 or 0.81 m) with tight choking and designed to shoot slightly above the point of aim. Skeet guns are usually lighter and faster handling with barrel length from 26 to 28 in (0.66 to 0.71 m) and with fairly open chokes. Sporting models most often come with an interchangeable choke facility and barrel lengths of 28 in (0.71 m), 30 in (0.76 m), and 32 in (0.81 m) according to preference.
This is a single barreled gun that chambers a new shell from a magazine automatically after each shot, but which requires the shooter to press the trigger for each shot. This design combines reduced recoil and relatively low weight with quick follow up shots.
(sometimes shortened to SS or SXS) Like the over and under, there are two barrels, however instead of being arranged in a vertical stack they are next to each other on a horizontal plane. Side-by-sides are harder to aim for new shooters, as the two barrels does not provide the same instinctive feedback as the single visible barrel of a semi-automatic or O/U. Modern production of SXS weapons is limited, in favor of O/U, and older weapons are usually not rated for steel shot, preventing their use on many shooting ranges.
This is a single barreled gun that reloads from a tubular or box magazine when the user slides a grip towards and then away from themselves. The pump-action format is popular with casual shooters in the US, but is far less common in Europe. The pump-action is inherently slower than all but the single barrel break action and thus follow up shots are more difficult. In addition to this, although their mechanical complexity is comparable to that of the semi-automatic they lack the latter's advantage of recoil reduction.
Most single shot shotguns are break action; they operate similarly to the over and under and the side-by-side except they have only one barrel and can hold only one shot. Some are very inexpensive, and they are the most popular type of gun in American Trap. Most other clay pigeon shooting disciplines require guns capable of holding two shells. The low weight of some single-shot guns result in excessive recoil which further diminishes their appeal for high volume clay shooting.


Game Pigeon Won't Loading

Shotgun cartridges are readily available in gun shops and at shooting grounds, and within limitations as to the shot size and the weight of the shot load are suitable for clay shooting at CPSA affiliated grounds and for use in events coming under CPSA rules. Though home loaded cartridges allow the user to customize the ballistic characteristics of their shells, they are generally not allowed at clay pigeon shooting events unless specified otherwise.

The instructions and specifications are printed on the boxes. For clay competition, shot size must not exceed 2.6 mm/English No. 6.[7] The shot load must be a maximum 28 g (0.99 oz) for all domestic disciplines; or 24 g (0.85 oz) for Olympic trap, Olympic skeet, and double trap; up to 28 g for FITASC sporting (from 2005); and 36 g (1.3 oz) for helice.[citation needed]


Laser Clay Pigeon Shooting, also known as Laser Clay Shooting or even Laser Shooting, is a variation on the traditional sport of Clay Pigeon Shooting where the shotguns are disabled and fitted with laser equipment that can detect hits on specially modified reflective clays. Laser clay pigeon shooting offers a safe alternative for beginners.

The rules and disciplines are normally the same as the traditional sport using live weapons.

There are four principal pieces of equipment for a laser clay shooting setup: guns, launcher, scoreboard, and clays.[8]

  • A laser clay shooting gun at a laser clay shooting range.

  • Laser Clay Launcher/Trap

The activity can be done indoors or outdoors. Just like traditional clay shooting clays are released from a trap and the participants shoot at the flying disc. Unlike traditional clay shooting, multiple participants all shoot at the same disc. In most equipment the register of hits and misses is recorded electronically, and the sounds of the shotgun firing and the clay being hit are played from simulated sounds.

Although the activity is similar to traditional clay shooting it does use slightly different shooting principles, some of which are closer to target shooting.


  1. ^ abThe Encyclopædia of Sport & Games: Rackets - Zebra. 1912.
  2. ^Lowerson, John (1993). Sport and the English Middle Classes, 1870-1914. Manchester University Press. ISBN978-0-7190-4651-3.
  3. ^Parliament, New Zealand (1928). Parliamentary Debates. p. 33.
  4. ^'Electrocibles or helice shooting'. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  5. ^'L'Italia dell'Elica sulla vetta d'Europa' (in Italian). 10 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  6. ^'Helice ZZ'. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  7. ^CartridgesArchived 2009-02-06 at the Wayback Machine, Clay Pigeon Shooting Association rules.
  8. ^'What is Laser Clay Shooting? - Things to do in Reading'. Things to do in Reading. Retrieved 2018-04-04.

External links[edit]

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