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Exidy was a developer and manufacturer of coin-operated amusements. The company was founded by H.R. 'Pete' Kauffman and Samuel Hawes in 1973.[1][2] The name 'Exidy' was a portmanteau of the words 'Excellence in Dynamics'.

Notable games released by Exidy include Circus, Death Race, Star Fire, Venture, Pepper II, Mouse Trap, Targ and Spectar.

Game history[edit]

Pete Kauffman was a marketing executive at Ramtek (company) in 1972 and was one of several employees of the company who played the original Atari Pong prototype at Andy Capps Tavern in Sunnyvale, California. Believing coin-operated video games would become a major business, he left Ramtek in late 1973 to establish Exidy with Ampex engineer Samuel Hawes.[3]

Exidy found competing with larger video game companies such as Atari, Inc. difficult. The company's Lila Zinter claimed in 1983 that 'Exidy is an innovator, but ... we have a hard time breaking through the politics of getting a game a fair chance.'[4]

One of Exidy's efforts aimed at trivia lovers during the 1980s was the quiz game Fax, a multi-level game housed in a large wooden cabinet that stood about 4 feet high and looked nothing like other video games of the time period.[5] The players were shown a series of questions with four possible answers. A point value 'clock' ran down to zero after answers were shown, meaning players answering quicker earned more points for their correct answers (Incorrect answers incurred no penalty).

Beginning in 1983, Exidy released a series of light gun games, the first and most well known of which was Crossbow. These presented an unusual twist to the light gun genre: the goal is to protect characters walking through the screen by shooting things which are trying to kill the characters. These games were also the first to feature fully digitized sound for all sound effects and music.[citation needed] Other 'C' series games include Cheyenne, Combat, Crackshot, Clay Pigeon and Chiller. Chief designer for these games was Larry Hutcherson.[6] Exidy also made two rarely seen motion cabinet games with vector graphics called Vertigo and Top Gunner. Chief game designer for this game was Vic Tolomei.

Another somewhat successful[citation needed] game from Exidy was a driving game named Top Secret. This game featured a spy car with advanced weaponry on a mission inside the Soviet Union to destroy a heavily guarded Top Secret super weapon. Game designers for this game were Vic Tolomei, Larry Hutcherson and Ken Nicholson.

In 2006, it was announced that Mean Hamster Software acquired rights to develop new Exidy arcade games.[7]

In 2015, CollectorVision Games registered the unused trademark rights to the Exidy name and logo.[8]

The Exidy Sorcerer[edit]

Under the leadership of visionary Paul Terrell of Byte Shop fame, Exidy made a brief foray into the personal computer market, with the Exidy Sorcerer in 1978.

The Sorcerer was a modified S-100 bus based machine, but lacked the internal expansion system common to other S-100 systems. It made do with an S-100 expansion card-edge that could connect to an external S-100 expansion cage. The Sorcerer also featured an advanced (for the era) text display that was capable of 64 characters per line, when most systems supported only 40 characters. The Sorcerer did not support sound, color, or in some respects, graphics, which seems at odds with the company's video game background; however, the characters it displayed were programmable by the user. The system was never very popular in North America, but found a following in Australia and Europe, notably Belgium.[9] Exidy licensed the Sorcerer computer and its software to a Texas-based startup called Dynasty Computer Corporation in 1979. It was relabeled and sold by Dynasty as the Dynasty Smart-Alec.

Arcade titles[edit]

TitleRelease dateNotes
TV Pinball1975License of Ramtek's Knockout. The cocktail version is called Table Pinball.
Table Foosballer1975Licensed from Ramtek.
Alley Rally1975
Destruction Derby1975
Old Time Basketball1975Mechanical basketball game.
Death RaceApril 1, 1976During development, this game was known as Death Race 98.
Robot Bowl1977
Super Death Chase1977
Car Polo1977
Side Trak1979
Fire One!1979
Star Fire1979
BandidoJanuary 1980Originally developed and released by Nintendo in 1979 as Sheriff
Tail Gunner 21980Purchased from Cinematronics
Mouse Trap1981
Pepper II1982
Victory1982Exidy also produced a graphics hack of this game called Victor Banana.
Hard Hat1982Limited release
Whirly Bucket1983A twist on the Skee-Ball concept. Unlike that game, the balls curve around a loop, hopefully falling into a hole. Just under the holes, there is a moving puppet, which can be struck with the ball for double points.
Tidal Wave1983A twist on the Skee-Ball concept. Unlike that game, the balls curve around a loop, hopefully falling into a hole.
Vertigo1985Limited release
Top Gunner1986
Top Secret1986During development, this game was called 0077. The title was changed to Top Secret possibly due to copyright issues, since the title is similar to the movie series 007. When the game was changed to Top Secret, 50 levels were added and the controls were changed to a steering wheel.
Clay Pigeon1986
Hit 'n Miss1987
Who Dunit1988
Showdown1988Poker game
Yukon1989Poker game (gambling version)
Twister1989A take on the Skee-Ball concept.
Turbo Ticket1996A take on the ticket grabber concept.

First Star Software games[edit]

These were licensed from First Star Software in 1984 for use with the Max-A-Flex arcade system.

Unreleased prototypes[edit]

  • Kreepy Krawlers (1979)
  • UFO's (1980)
  • Teeter Torture (1982)
  • Snapper (1982)
  • Critter (1995, mechanical gun game)
  • Hot Shot (1995, mechanical gun game)
  • Troll (1995, mechanical gun game)

Free titles via MAME[edit]

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In 2007, the MAME website announced[10] that H.R. Kauffman had released the first of what would become a sizable group of Exidy games downloadable for free, non-commercial use, adding Circus to the already-released Teeter Torture. By 2011, with the help of Reinhard Stompe, the list[11] of ROM images included Circus, Robot Bowl, Car Polo, Side Trak, Ripcord, Fire One, Crash, Star Fire and its unreleased upgrade Star Fire II, Targ, Spectar, Hard Hat, Victory, Teeter Torture, Fax and Top Gunner.

The ROM images may be freely downloaded from the MAME website after the user acknowledges the terms of usage.[12]


  1. ^'Obituary: Exidy founder Pete Kauffman'. Gamasutra. 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  2. ^'Pete Kauffman Dies; Created Arcade Games Under Exidy Brand'. Vending Times. 2015-07-27. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  3. ^Smith, Alexander (2019). They Create Worlds: The Story of the People and Companies That Shaped the Video Game Industry, Volume I. CRC Press. p. 201. ISBN9781138389908.
  4. ^Pearl, Rick (June 1983). 'Closet Classics'. Electronic Games. p. 82. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  5. ^Flippers Web Site image of FAX game.
  6. ^James Hague, 'The Giant List of Classic Game Programmers: Hutcherson, Larry W. Sr.', 24 January 2010
  7. ^Mean Hamster Software
  8. ^CollectorVision Games
  9. ^Obsolete Technology Website
  10. ^MAME Multiple Arcade machine Emulator 'New ROMs and Wiki Content', February 27, 2007, accessed June 15, 2011.
  11. ^MAME Star Fire (Exidy, 1979) Undated; images last modified October 26, 2010, accessed June 15, 2011.
  12. ^MAME Multiple Arcade machine Emulator 'New Free ROMs Posted', January 25, 2011, accessed June 15, 2011.

External links[edit]

  • The Dot Eaters Article featuring a history of Death Race and Exidy
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You’ve probably faced it. You download an app, open it and *bam* – there it goes! Crashed. I’ve heard people talk about how Facebook or Instagram or Skype or any other app crashes when they open it. There are a ton of reasons things could go wrong and cause the app to crash and it would be wrong to immediately assume that the app is buggy (without, of course, discounting that possibility).

Rick once wrote an interesting post on how most of the app-crashes can be fixed just by doing one single soft reset. Although this does work most of the times, it isn’t an end-all solution. He doesn’t say so himself but let’s also take a look at other possibilities that can help you get rid of the issue.

Apps Crashing on iPhone or iPad: Tips to Fix the Issue

#1. Soft Reset

The first thing you do when you find that an iPhone app keeps crashing is a “soft reset.” What this basically does is clears the memory by killing apps and gives you a head start. This is what you do to do a soft reset:

  • Press the home and power buttons simultaneously
  • The slide to turn off the iPhone comes up but do nothing but hold the buttons down
  • The iPhone powers down with the screen going blank. Keep holding the buttons still and then the iPhone reboots with the Apple logo coming up on the screen
  • In order to reboot iPhone 7/7 Plus, press and hold volume down button and power button
  • And To restart your iPhone 8, 8 Plus, X or later, click and release Volume Up button then click and release volume down button, and then press and hold side button

That’s it. Now try out the new app that kept crashing before. In most cases, your problem is solved.

#2. Re-install App from Mac/PC

I can’t say the first solution works all the time. Sometimes, iPhone apps keep crashing when opened or used. What do you do then?

You delete the app and re-install it. Albeit, this time, you install it via iTunes and then transfer that to your iPhone/iPad by syncing it. Not exactly a great method to take on but if nothing helps, you’ve got to try this.

  • Delete the app from your iDevice
  • Find the app in iTunes (in your Purchase History preferably.)
  • Connect the iPhone or iPad to your computer
  • Sync the iOS device: let the app get installed
  • Disconnect after the sync
  • Restart your iOS device and try the app

#3. Clear Memory

You don’t know how many times this happens. People stuff the iPhone with a ton of songs and videos (and even apps) and quite a lot of apps keep running in the background. This eats up a lot of memory (not to forget, the battery too).

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And then when you try to open and run an app, it struggles to get some breathing space with all the choking apps running in the background along with it. So the iPhone puts the app out of its misery and crashes it.

You’ll need to do two things to clear things up.

  • Double-press the home button to bring up the multi-task switching bar and then close all apps that are running in the background by swiping up each app. After this, try the app
  • If it’s a storage issue, try removing a bunch of songs that you usually skip whenever it comes up on the playlist. Or a bunch of videos that you’ve not seen in ages. This will free up some space that can turn out to be helpful for the app not to crash

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#4. Go Thermonuclear

Eerie as it sounds, you might need to go thermonuclear and restore your device from a backup or as a new iPhone if the problems keep creeping up. Restoring is the last option but wait! If you feel that the app could be the problem (and not your iPhone), you can save yourself the pains of this last step.

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There are over 1.2 million apps on the App Store but not every one of them is Gmail, Angry Birds or Spotify. A lot – and I mean a really huge lot – of them are buggy, problematic and ill-developed and designed. If none of the above three methods worked and you have a hunch that the problem lies with the app, you should probably just delete it and look for an alternative.

Game Pigeon Crashing Games

That’s all, mate!

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Do share your feedback with us in the comment below.

Jignesh Padhiyar is the co-founder of who has a keen eye for news, rumors and all the unusual stuff that happens around Apple products. During his tight schedule, Jignesh finds some moments of respite to share side-splitting contents on social media.

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